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Exports

Description: 

The exporting of goods and services is a significant driver of the U.S. economy. However, since the value of imports has exceeded exports for many years, the nation has a trade deficit. In states, exports also are an important economic driver, but international exports and exports to other states have a comparable impact on the state’s economy. Similarly, imports from other states or countries have a comparable impact on a state’s economy, causing money to leave the state. However, if a state has an international port, the portion of international imports and exports that pass through a state result in economic activity in the state.

Exports by state are limited to commodities, divided between manufactured goods, other goods (such as agricultural and mining commodities), and “re-exports.” Commodities imported into the United States that are processed in the United States and then exported are placed in the re-export category. Exports of services are not included in the state totals.

The export data by state are available back to 1996. Substate data are not available. Though monthly data are available, calendar year totals are featured on Arizona Indicators. The data are adjusted for inflation. In order to compare Arizona to the nation, the value of exports as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) is calculated.

Data Source: 

U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/. Total exports are obtained from “Origin of Movement Exports, Origin state-based.” Commodity and country data are from “Imports and Exports.” These data are limited to the top 25 commodities and top 25 countries since 2007; complete data can be purchased from the Census Bureau. The commodities are categorized by the “Harmonized System,” not by the North American Industry Classification System.

The U. S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis produces gross domestic product by state http://www.bea.gov/regional/index.htm and the national GDP deflator http://www.bea.gov/national/index.htm. Click on the “Interactive Tables: GDP and the National Income and Product Account (NIPA) Historical Tables” link; the GDP deflator is in Table 1.1.9 (Section 1: Domestic Product and Income).

Data Quality Comments: 

The export data do not necessarily reflect commodities manufactured, grown or mined in a state. Instead, the export data reflect the transportation origin—the state from which merchandise begins its journey to the port of export. However, if shipments are consolidated, the consolidated shipment is assigned to the state where the consolidation occurred. Because of these limitations and significant limitations in the import data, a trade balance (exports less imports) by state should not be computed.

iconExports from Arizona in Millions of Inflation-Adjusted (2014) Dollars

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Visualization Notes:

After experiencing a much lesser percent change in exports than the nation in each year from 2007 through 2012, the percent change in Arizona was greater than the nation in 2013 and 2014. However, the 2014 value still was slightly lower than the values in 2007 and 2008; the value plunged in 2009 during the recession. In particular, the exports of manufactures remained considerably below historical levels.

iconExports as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product

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Visualization Notes:

Total exports as a share of gross domestic product was higher in Arizona than the U.S. average through 2004, but has been lower since 2007, as the national figure has climbed while the share in Arizona fell in the late 1990s and has since been flat. Manufactured commodities account for the bulk of exports; the annual pattern for manufactures has been similar to the total in Arizona and the nation.

In contrast, exports of other commodities from Arizona have followed the nation’s rising trend, with the share of GDP being close to the U.S. average through 2012 and higher since then. Re-exports as a share of GDP have been higher in Arizona than the nation, probably due to the maquiladora program, in which manufacturing facilities in northern Mexico are paired with facilities in Arizona. The re-export share has climbed since 1999 nationally and in Arizona.

iconExports from Arizona to Major Destinations in Millions of Inflation-Adjusted (2014) Dollars

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Visualization Notes:

More than 40 percent of the exports from Arizona went to Mexico in 2014; Canada ranked second with 11 percent of the total value. The real value of exports to Mexico increased 36 percent between 2011 and 2014; the real value declined with four of the other five largest trading partners.

iconExports from Arizona of Major Commodities in Millions of Inflation-Adjusted (2014) Dollars

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Visualization Notes:

With commodity exports classified into a large number of categories, no single category accounts for a large share of the total. The values of civilian aircraft and copper ore each accounted for between 10-and-11 percent category of the 2014 total. The value of copper ore exports rose sharply between 2011 and 2014 while the value of civilian aircraft rose only a little. Three of the other top exported commodities come from the high-technology electronics sector, but the value of exports decreased between 2011 and 2014 in two of these categories.

Data Source

U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/. Total exports are obtained from “Origin of Movement Exports, Origin state-based.” Commodity and country data are from “Imports and Exports.” These data are limited to the top 25 commodities and top 25 countries since 2007; complete data can be purchased from the Census Bureau. The commodities are categorized by the “Harmonized System,” not by the North American Industry Classification System.

The U. S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis produces gross domestic product by state http://www.bea.gov/regional/index.htm and the national GDP deflator http://www.bea.gov/national/index.htm. Click on the “Interactive Tables: GDP and the National Income and Product Account (NIPA) Historical Tables” link; the GDP deflator is in Table 1.1.9 (Section 1: Domestic Product and Income).